Tornyak (Tornyak, Bosnian-Herzegovina-Croatian shepherd dog) is an ancient native breed of dogs that was almost completely lost in the 20th century and restored by enthusiasts in the 70s. In the historical homeland, breeders and amateurs still use these dogs for their intended purpose. And they are very proud of their really working breed.
There are several theories of the emergence and spread of shepherd dogs in Europe. The most popular is that they all descended from Tibetan dogs and traveled a long way from Central Asia to Western Europe.
The name of the breed Tornjak (Bosnian Tornjak) is derived from the word: torn - corral and in an approximate translation means "corral guard"
Studies by dog handler Alan Salkic show that tornak is an indigenous breed that has lived in modern Bosnia for at least 10 centuries, mainly in the region of Mount Vlasic and the surrounding plains. The first written mention of Tornak is found in the Annals of the Bosnian Church (1067). Later, dogs are described in documents of the XIV-XVIII centuries. From that time to the present day, the appearance and character of Torniac has remained virtually unchanged.
Traditionally, tornac was used to protect herds and housing. He easily emerges victorious in a fight with two wolves, and a pair of dogs can drive a bear away.
The transition of cattle breeding from pasture to stall negatively affected the condition of the breed, by the middle of the 20th century there were practically no thorns. Work on the restoration of the breed began in the early 70s in Croatia and Bosnia at the same time. Since 1978, purebred breeding has been conducted. In 1981, the breed was registered with national clubs. The first Standard was approved in 1990. Since February 2006, Tornak is a conditionally recognized breed in FCI. He has the right to exhibit and participate in any show without the right to a CACIB title.
Tornac is a large, strong, proportionate dog. The case is almost square format, the backbone is medium. The coat is long and dense. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced.
- Height at the withers of males - 65-70 cm.; Weight - 34-50 kg.
- Height at the withers of bitches - 60-65 cm.; weight - 34-40 kg.
The ratio of the length of the skull and muzzle is 1: 1. The head is elongated, the upper lines of the muzzle and skull diverge. Stop is poorly expressed. The muzzle is rectangular with a straight back of the nose. The lobe is wide enough dark in color, in harmony with color. Lips fit tightly. Scissor bite. In adulthood, often changes in a straight line. Eyes of dark color, almond-shaped. The ears are triangular, medium in size, set quite high, hanging down close to the cheeks. The neck is powerful, medium length with tight-fitting skin.
The back is short, straight, moderately wide. The loin is short. The croup is wide, slightly sloping. The chest is deep, wide, spacious, oval in shape, reaching the elbows. The stomach is moderately tightened. The tail is set at medium height, very mobile, long. In a calm state, it hangs down. Legs with strong bones and strong muscles, parallel, well set. Paws with well-arched, tight-set fingers. The claws are dark. Pads are dense, solid, dark in color. The correct structure of the limbs is provided by well-balanced, elastic movements with a strong push of the hind legs.
The skin adheres well throughout the body. The hair on the head, muzzle, legs is short, in other areas it is long, straight (at least 9 cm). On the shoulders and back it can be slightly wavy. A collar forms around the neck, on the back of the limbs and tail of the tow. Winter undercoat is a dense, long, pleasant woolen texture. The color is two-color or three-color with a predominant white color. The spots on the body are red, black, yellow or brown.
Nature and behavior
Torniak is independent and stubborn, but sincerely devoted to his family and always thinks about others. He has a balanced character, courageous, intelligent, self-confident, with innate protective instincts, very resistant to pain. It rarely barks. Each Tornak is individually a vibrant personality and can respond differently to the same situation. The character is calm and serious. An adult dog may seem lazy and even phlegmatic, but it has a lightning reaction and is ready for defense with the slightest threat.
Tornak is poorly adapted for the role of companion, it is primarily a working dog, a herd guard against predatory animals and ill-wishers.
Tornak is unobtrusive, non-aggressive. It treats unfamiliar animals and people with suspicion, but without obvious aggression. A normal psychic will not grumble at guests or be aggressive towards strangers on walks. Of course, all these “good manners” come with genetics and competent education. A shepherd dog is relatively easy to learn teams, but will constantly check the owner, look for his weaknesses. Torniac is obedient, but he is a dominant who agrees to be with the owner only on equal terms and is independently able to carry out the work for which he was born. It is worth noting that there are people who are involved in freestyle and other sports.
Tornac is not suitable for living in an apartment. This dog needs space and freedom of movement. Thick coat allows him to easily tolerate even severe frosts. Physiologically, cannabis is more suited to low protein foods. A lot of meat in the diet can cause problems with the skin, coat, kidneys, and others.
Tornac is inherently very social; he is better off living and working in the company of other dogs.
Tornac is a very large dog that needs to move a lot. Powerful and quite athletic, and therefore not suitable for people who do not have time to walk outside the protected area. Particular attention should be paid to walking, games and training in the first 2-3 years, when a teenager is formed into an adult dog. You can not consider Tornak as a sports dog for running or cycling, it can slowly move near the herd, but is not suitable for a marathon.
Tornac does not require special care. Brushing out every 2 weeks is usually enough. During molting more often. Working dogs are often never combed, and exhibition dogs are often scratched and bathed before the show. Periodically inspect and clean the ears. Claws normally grind on their own. It is very important from a puppy's age to accustom a dog to hygiene procedures.
Health and Life Expectancy
Tornac is a healthy breed, very hardy with strong immunity. During puppy growth, the owner needs to pay attention to the joints. Good genetics does not preclude the need for vaccination and treatment against parasites. Life expectancy is 9-11 years.
Where to buy a puppy of Tornyak breed
Those who want to buy a puppy of Tornak breed often have to look for a breeder abroad. Finding a good kennel in the historic homeland of the breed will not be difficult, as will a free-to-sell puppy of the desired gender and color. It is better to determine the purpose of the dog in advance, and immediately look for a breeder of working or exhibition dogs. Outside of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, there are large nurseries in France, the Czech Republic, Poland and some other countries. In Russia there are several representatives of the breed and nurseries, one of them is located in the suburbs.
The price range is very extensive. In Croatia, they ask from 500 to 4000 kuna (80-650 dollars) for a puppy. Less commonly, puppies are more expensive. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, prices are about the same.
Photos and videos
How dogs of the Tornyak breed look can be seen in the photographs in the gallery.
Video about the breed of dogs Tornyak (Tornyak)