A dog breed called dachshund is considered one of the most popular in the world. Everyone knows her by the unusual body structure resembling a sausage. The dachshund owes such an elongated body to the German hunters, who carried out painstaking work to create the perfect normal dog.
The first information about dogs similar to modern dachshunds appeared in the 16th century in southern Germany. Dachshund is considered the oldest breed of burrowing hunting dogs. Her ancestors were supposedly German hounds called marriages. It was from these stocky and stunted dogs that dachshunds inherited courage, extraordinary intelligence, hunting instinct, and intuition.
The Germans call them Dachshund, which translates as badger dog. The oldest breeding club is the Deutscher Teckelklub e. V, it was created in 1888.
Dachshund was brought to Russia around the middle of the 18th century, but its popularity began to grow only in the 20th century. Interestingly, the dachshunds were Napoleon's favorite pets. He so passionately loved his dogs Fossetta and Grenuya, that he ordered them to be buried with him in the same grave. Among other famous people who were connoisseurs of dachshunds, it is worth noting Anton Chekhov (he had 2 dachshunds) and Andy Warhol.
Video review of the Dachshund dog breed:
Appearance and Standards
The dachshund is a squat, short-legged dog of an elongated but compact physique with well-developed muscles, a proud head landing and an attentive expression. Dachshunds are very mobile and plastic.
For decades, breeders bred dachshunds of three sizes:
- Standard (chest circumference from 36 cm);
- Miniature dachshund (chest girth up to 30 to 35 cm);
- Rabbit dachshund (chest circumference up to 30 cm).
And also three varieties of wool:
- Smooth coat
Regardless of the type, the dachshund should not weigh more than 10 kg.
Head and face
The head of a dachshund is elongated, but not pointed, tapering evenly to the nose. Jaws are well developed. The teeth should be fully set in the correct bite. Lips fit well and cover the lower jaw. The eyes are oval, medium sized, set wide, with a friendly, energetic look. For all colors, shirts should be light to dark brown. Even dogs of a marbled color, bright eyes are undesirable, but tolerant. The ears are quite long, set high, have a rounded shape. The front edges of the auricle are adjacent to the cheekbones. The neck is long and flexible. The scruff is slightly convex.
The top line has a slight slope due to slightly sloping croup. The back is strong, straight or slightly falling. The chest is very well developed, the ribs laid back. The lower point of the sternum should be above the ground at a distance of 1/3 of the height at the withers. The bottom line is slightly matched. The tail is a continuation of the apex, straight or saber, tapering to the tip. A slight bend in the last third is allowed. The limbs are short, very muscular. Seen from the front, the front legs are straight, the paws are directed forward, and the elbows are strictly back. Hind legs set parallel. Paws well assembled, stand on strong pillows.
According to the MKF standard, which is a detailed description of the breed, fees must be tested. Some clubs of non-European countries are trying to achieve the abolition and award of the title of Interchampion only in beauty. The leadership of the association of a different opinion: the dachshund is a hunting dog and this is confirmed by tests, and an excellent exterior should not exclude excellent working qualities.
Coat and colors
Smooth haired dachshund It has a short, shiny, thick coat that fits snugly on the skin. Hard to the touch. Winter coat is a little longer and thicker than summer.
There are three types of colors:
- One-color (red, reddish yellow, fawn). Pure color is preferred; black hair is allowed.
- Two-tone saturated brown or black with red or fawn tints.
- Marble with the main dark color (black, red or gray), on which there are random beige or gray spots.
Breeding a dachshund of marble color is quite a bold undertaking, since the merle gene responsible for color carries hidden threats in terms of health.
Wire-haired dachshund the owner of thick, hard wool with undercoat. Hair of the same length fits snugly throughout the body, only on the face forms a beard and bushy eyebrows, on the ears the hair is shorter than on the body, almost smooth. The color is dominated by the so-called boars (has many shades from light to dark). There may also be others described for a smooth-haired variety other than marble and tiger.
Long haired dachshund the most elegant. Her coat is moderately soft, shiny with undercoat. On the body it fits snugly, on the throat and lower body a little longer. On the ears drops below the edge, forming a fringe. Pronounced tows on the hind legs and the lower side of the tail. The colors of long-haired dogs can be monophonic and two-tone, as in smooth-haired dogs.
Dachshund dog character
Dachshunds are real sanguine. These long dogs are very curious from nature, as the hunting instinct makes them know everything that is happening around. Dachshunds will surely interest any slightest creak or rustle, which makes them excellent watchmen.
Dachshunds are always full of energy, but at the same time they are very gentle creatures. The courage and pride of these dogs is sometimes reckless. However, larger dogs often respect the serious intentions of the crumbs with respect. A cheerful dachshund will always be devoted to its owner. This dog gets along with children who will be respectful to her, but may be intolerant of the excessive caress of a very young child. And dachshunds love to travel.
The dachshund gets along well with other pets in the house, but sometimes it can have bouts of jealousy. The dachshund will always require respect for itself, as it considers itself a proud and important person. Dachshunds are true lovers of comfort, and therefore they often climb to their knees and whether their hands are to their owner. They can often be found wrapped in a blanket.
Parenting and training
Almost all taxes are relatively poorly trained, this does not mean that they are stupid. Dachshunds quickly remember home rules, various teams and even tricks, but are not always ready to perform them at the first request of the owner. Sometimes it’s hard to get them to shut up for a while, as they really like to bark. These smart dogs will always defend their master. Experienced dachshund owners believe that long-haired dachshunds are calmer than their shorthair relatives. Dogs of this breed do not tolerate rudeness and neglect.
Dachshunds are very obedient dogs when they are at home, but when hunting or walking, the dog forgets about his complaisant character and, smelling the trail, plunges headlong into the search for the beast.
Hunting with a dachshund
Initially, the dachshunds were bred for burrowing, but also the little dogs with great pleasure trail the hare, raise black grouse and feed the bird from the water. Most modern owners of dachshunds start them as pets, dogs for the couch and family, but there are also lovers who use the breed for its intended purpose, however, according to the dog handlers, no more than a third of them.
Using dachshunds to hunt a burrowing beast is quite dangerous. Following the animal underground, dachshunds can fall under a collapse, lose the fight with the occupant or get stuck. Therefore, a hunter with a dachshund will have to take with him not only a gun, but also a shovel.
A dog can work in many different ways. One dachshund barks prey, disturbs with short grabs and forces the inhabitant of the hole to jump out of the shelter under a shot. Another, having found an opponent, pinches him in the jaw and does not let him go while the beast is alive or until the hunter arrives.
Dachshunds are characterized by such qualities as endurance, viscosity and hunting courage, excitement and courage. On the hunt, they have another distinguishing feature - ingenuity, which fully manifests itself only in the field. A dog that has grown in close contact with the owner understands the task at a glance and does what is required of it at the moment.
Maintenance and care
For a pet breed dachshund, you need to allocate your place in the house. At the same time, it should be quite spacious. Dachshunds are very active, mobile and like toys, so their place should be equipped with various balls, rubber bones, etc. Dachshunds may have back problems due to their physique. For this reason, the sleeping place of the dog should not be too soft.
To maintain his fervent temperament, the dog needs regular physical activity in the form of walks and active games. Very good on the musculoskeletal system will be influenced by climbs on the slopes and walking on rough terrain. In the cold season, many owners pick up clothes for dogs according to the weather.
Caring for dachshund hair is not difficult, with the exception of wire-haired dogs, which need regular trimming. The rest is enough to comb regularly, a little more often during molting. Dogs are not bathed often, as needed. Care tools and cosmetics are selected depending on the type and length of the coat.
Dachshunds need eye care. The resulting mucus in the eyes can be removed with a cotton swab dipped in ordinary boiled water. If abundant discharge occurs, you should immediately contact your veterinarian. You need to clean your ears as they become dirty. This will help to avoid the development of inflammation and infectious diseases. Teeth also need regular care. To clean them, special toothpastes, goodies and toys are used, which remove plaque and thereby activate the formation of tartar.
Since the dachshund is a hunting breed, active with well-developed muscles, its body needs meat, which should be 30-50% of the diet. It can be beef, veal, rabbit. It is better to refuse pork, it is too oily for the dog, and chicken often causes allergies. An excellent substitute for meat 1-2 times a week will be fillet of low-fat marine fish (in boiled form), as well as offal. About a fifth of the ration should be cereals (for example, oatmeal, rice or buckwheat). It is good to include vegetables (for example, carrots, squash, squash) in your pet’s diet. The dog will be happy to eat them in boiled and stewed form. You can add a little vegetable oil to the vegetables. As a treat, you can treat the dachshund with bananas, dried fruits and sour-milk products.
If you prefer to feed your dog with prepared foods, then use holostics or super-premium food. The daily feed rate is calculated based on the recommendations on the package and is divided into 2-3 doses. Dachshunds are prone to obesity, so you should not overfeed them.
Health and Life Expectancy
Dachshunds usually suffer from diseases acquired as a result of improper maintenance, care or feeding, as well as due to age-related and other physiological changes that are beyond the control of the owner. In addition, several inherited diseases are distinguished in the breed:
- Papillary dystrophy of the skin - increased secretion of the sebaceous glands, leads to the formation of folds, hyperpigmentation and tightening of the skin. Sometimes the disease is associated with impaired function of the adrenal cortex or thyroid gland. Mostly smooth-haired dogs are affected.
- Swimmer's syndrome - an anomaly manifests itself at 3-4 weeks of age, puppies cannot rise to their feet due to deformation of the chest.
- Intervertebral disc defect. Most often, sliding disk syndrome is recorded, which leads to infringement of the spinal cord and subsequent paralysis. Manifest at the age of 5-7 years.
- Idiopathic epilepsy is manifested in dogs aged 2-3 years. Most often, wire-haired and long-haired dachshunds.
- In stiff dogs there are eyelash growth defects that can be corrected surgically.
- Marble dachshunds have anomalies in the development of the eyes;
- Alopecia (baldness) due to weakening of pigment is found in dogs of gray and isabella color, but since they are quite rare, the disease is not widespread.
- Progressive retinal atrophy begins to appear at the age of 1.5-5 years and usually leads to complete blindness.
The life expectancy of dachshunds is 12-14 years.
Puppy selection and price
The first thing that potential owners need is determined in order to purchase a fee. A dog may be:
- Working (hunting);
Decorative dogs are bred only on the exterior and are purchased to participate in exhibitions. These are mainly dwarf dachshunds. Hunting qualities are lost very quickly.
With hunting everything is clear, they must have vivid instincts and be born from parents who have shown themselves in this matter. This does not guarantee that the puppy will be a great helper, but significantly increases the likelihood.
Sports dachshunds are companions who are unlikely to show themselves at exhibitions and will not become hunter assistants, but the owners are going to participate with them in various sports or trials of the “artificial hole” type. At the same time, the working qualities of the dog are preserved. It can be used in breeding for excellent norniks and at the same time maintain the level of exterior qualities.
Having decided on the type, you should start choosing a kennel and parents, and then proceed to choosing a puppy from the litter. Working dogs are usually looked after not at exhibitions, but in the field. Watching the work, it is worth considering that first-class dogs do not always give good offspring.
The literacy and experience of the breeder is very important. It is in the first weeks of life that the foundation of the mental and physical health of the dog is laid. When choosing a baby from a litter, it is important to pay attention to its external data; they do not have much significance only if the dog does not participate in breeding. Puppies should be healthy, well-fed and heavy, but not at the expense of carbohydrate overweight or bloated abdomen. The limbs and head should appear disproportionately large. The coat is shiny, the movement is active and cheerful, the kids should be curious and playful.
Prices for puppies are very diverse. The fee from the nursery will cost around 25,000-35,000 rubles. Puppies without documents, but from working parents are sold by hunters on average for 10,000-15,000 rubles. Dachshunds without a pedigree born from amateurs are sometimes quite inexpensive, up to 5000 rubles.
Photo gallery dedicated to the Dachshund dog breed (puppies and adult dogs, long-haired, smooth-haired and wire-haired representatives of the breed):